Mr Trump is now expected to be in quarantine for some two weeks while facing treatment for the disease, with his diagnosis coming just one month before the US election on 3 November.
The president is 74 years old, putting him at higher risk of serious complications from the virus, and last year his medical revealed he met the technical threshold for obesity.
Mr Trump’s physician Sean Conley said the president and first lady would remain at the White House during their isolation.
He said: “The White House medical team and I will maintain a vigilant watch, and I appreciate the support provided by some of our country’s greatest medical professionals and institutions.
“Rest assured I expect the president to continue carrying out his duties without disruption while recovering, and I will keep you updated on any future developments